A surplus describes the amount of an asset or resource that exceeds the portion that’s actively utilized. A surplus can refer to a host of different items, including income, profits, capital, and goods. In the context of inventories, a surplus describes products that remain sitting on store shelves, unpurchased. In budgetary contexts, a surplus occurs when income earned exceeds expenses paid. A budget surplus can also occur within governments when there’s leftover tax revenue after all governmental programs are fully financed.
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